Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Personal Development Essay On starting this module I was quite looking forward to undertaking it. There seemed to be a number of issues that appealed and as it has a personal perspective to it the appeal was greater. During this assignment I hope to be objective in my findings and evaluate my discovery on personal development within the three perspectives. I also like to understand the impact on the different perspective and how the influence both personal an professional growth. 1. Apply the three theoretical perspectives in relation to personal development. Ã Psychodynamic:Ã Freud is the founder of psychotherapy, treatments such as free assocuation and analysis of the id, ego and superego were the way to deal with the consciousn/ uncocious psyche. Howerver current practitioners continue to use Freuds approaches albeit with more supportive techniques. It is now understood that psychotherapy is more effective when it leads to incresed self-knowledge and awareness. Other maintain object relations are more suited to change habitual practices. In terms of the three theoretical perspective on my own personal development, I have identified the following in Psychodynamic: Altruism: I have on many occassions put aside my own emotional needs by meeting to the extream the needs of others, more times than often meeting their needs FIRST.Ã Avoidance: I have openly spoken of how I use avoidance to distance myself from a person or situation. It prevents me getting personally involve or attached, and has been a tacktic used since childhood.Ã Compensation: I overcompensate my disability (dyslexia) by studying as many subject as possible usually all at the same time. At the time it seem irrational, but personaly there is a need to prove I am a person having a disabilty ..I am not disabled (or stupid) Denial: I am in denial about so many thingsI dont know what they are!Ã Idealization : I idealise about all the things I am going to accomplish, albeit far from the realilty of me being able to do so. I often think it is about me being a dreamer and creative, the reality is it To dream the impossible dreamÃ Introjection: I was once told, If you walk like a General, talk like a general and dress like a General people will treat and repect you like one. I often do that and give the impression of being calm, logical, organised etc, when most of the time I am nervious irrational and disorganised (especially on the inside). The personal impact is one of acknowledging my defenses and growth towards the ideal self in order to form a theraputic alayance with the client.Ã The impact on the client is will be based on my appraoch having acknowledge within myself the transference and changes I am experiencing.Ã Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT):Ã This theory is the type of psychotherapy that is used in treating depression, anxiety, phobias and other kinds of mental disorder. CBT can help you to change how you think and what you do. These changes can help you to feel better. Unlike some of the other talking treatments, it focuses on the here and now problems and difficulties. Instead of focussing on the causes of your distress or symptoms in the past, it looks for ways to improve your state of mind now. Because CBT concentrates on behaviour this can be best dealt with when the client understands what views are held as rational and what perceptions are irrational.Ã A central aspect of Rational thinking is that it is based on fact, not simply our assumptions made. Often, we upset ourselves about things when, in fact, the situation is not like we think it is. If we knew that, we would not waste our time upsetting ourselves. I am trained to use Cognitive Behavioural Therapy when working in PST (Psycho-Sexual Therapy) and find it a difficult practice in as it sometimes conflicts with my personality and approach. Here is how Ive identified CBT for my personal development.Ã CBT is based on the scientific fact that our thoughts cause our feelings and behaviours. I am a great thinker and within my development have taken on the positive comments a member of the group has brought to my reflection. This is considered the fastest in terms of results obtained. (Average number of sessions around 16). This is very difficult for me, as I often get bored and impatient when the client is not making process. I am also a perfectionist and very strict in my expectations of the completing a task in such a limited time scale. I am learning not to be so hard or impatient with clients. Having said that this model compels me to work in a logical and cognitive state and the group in their observation of me often identifies this. The personal impact CBT will have for me is one of being direct and functioning in Adult ego state. This will enable be to practice being logical and direct as the model requires. (Not critical parent or perfectionist)Ã The impact on the client will be that they will feel confident and at ease in my intervention. Being able to rationalise and undertake homework to bring about change.
Running Head Quattroporte Inc Foreign Based As executives with the Canadian-based software company, Quattroporte Inc, we were charged with identifying the most suitable location for opening a foreign-based subsidiary to process sales outside of North America. Offshoring will help maximize profits for our organization which is in a period of hyper growth. As part of this study our team will be looking at the jurisdictions of Ireland, Gibraltar and the Isle of Man. To analyse the suitability of the aforementioned jurisdictions we will be discussing issues of globalization, tariff and non-tariff trade barriers, trade regulations, regional trading arrangements, international factor movements and multinationals, foreign exchange and risk strategies, international/regional banking factors, professional services support, taxes, capital flow/repatriation of profits, IP rights, political and policy direction, and country risk/freedom. Selection criteria will be explained and weighed for each jurisdiction. Results of this analysis will yield information which will inform managerial decision-making in establishing our foreign-based subsidiary. IRELAND Background Over time, Ireland has become a significant offshore jurisdiction. A full-fledged member of the European community, it has managed to attract significant international business commitments through its attractive taxation reductions. Lying to the West of Great Britain, having gained independence from the latter in 1922, this English speaking country of 3.5 million (1.2 million live in Dublin) is governed by a democratically elected parliamentary government. Population 4.7 million Labour force 2.1 million Unemployment rate 14.6% Public debt 118% of GDP. Communication Ireland possesses a modern digital system using cable and microwave radio relay. Transportation Ireland benefits from an extensive network of airports (16), railways (3,237 km), roadways (96,036 km), waterways (956 km), and a merchant marine (31). Government Ireland is a republic and has a parliamentary system of government. The head of state is the elected President of Ireland who serves for a 7-year term. Ireland also has a prime minister (called the Taoiseach) who is nominated by the House of Representatives (called DÃ ¡il Ãâ°ireann) and then appointed by the president. Besides the lower house, the House of Representatives, there is also an upper house, the Senate (or Seanad Ãâ°ireann). Ireland is a member of the European Union and one of the original 11 countries to adopt the euro as its currency in 1999Ã Ã . Ireland is politically stable and their government is well on its way to reduce planned reductions of public servants. Economy Since 2008, Ireland has suffered from a significant debt-laden bust following the Celtic Tiger boom which had been predicated on debt and an unsustainable housing bubble. Although they experienced a significant drop in economic activity following the 2008 financial crisis, the Irish government has made significant efforts to rectify the situation. This has included the establishment of a National Asset Management Agency (NAMA) in 2009 and across-the-board cuts in spendingÃ Ã . Half of the top 50 banks and 20 insurance companies are hosted in Ireland. In 2008 the International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) investments were equivalent to 11 times Irelands GNP. The Irish Stock Exchange hosts about a quarter of international bonds. Taxation Since October 1999, all Irish companies are liable to Irish corporation tax (regardless of where they are controlled or owners country of residency), they are no longer tax-free entities and must therefore pay Irish corporation tax, register with Internal Revenue Commissioners, and file annual tax returns. They have also established an extensive network of tax treaties which include the provision of exchange of information. This makes it important to ensure that management is based somewhere fiscally neutral. The following three principal elements make Ireland stand out as a tax havenÃ Ã : Corporate Taxation in Ireland is set at 12.5% on profits for all trading companies (non-trading income is taxed at 25%). A 25% corporate tax rate relates to passive income whereas capital gains tax is 30%. Near-absence of transfer pricing rules (source of loopholes in international tax) lets multinationals artificially relocate their profits away from Ireland, usually via transfer pricing mechanisms, to lower-tax or zero-tax jurisdictions. As such, large portions of multinationals profits are sheltered from Irish tax. Membership in the European Union grants Ireland political stability and special access to European markets, membership has also kept it tax haven blacklists (e.g. Caymen Islands and Bermuda), and many countries that would apply withholding tax on interest paid to traditional tax havens do not apply them to Ireland because its classified as onshore. Relationships with International Bodies Overall, Irelands place within the European Union, weak rules on transfer pricing, and broad network of tax treaties make it particularly attractive for offshoring. Case in point, according to a recent study, 60% of companies pay no to virtually no corporation tax. Effective tax rates were estimated at 7.3% in Ireland compared with 37% in France and 26% in CanadaÃ Ã . This has resulted in other European countries crying foul play and also triggered beggar-thy-neighbour policies. They still have much work to do to implement better financial transparence. Intellectual Property Protection Ireland ranks 7th on the Global Intellectual Property Index (GIPI)Ã Ã . Ireland is a common law jurisdiction with an independent and efficient court system, a wide range of legal protections for the creators/owners of Intellectual Property Rights and the possibility of obtaining generous state grant assistance with research and development projects. Isle of Man Background The Isle of Man is an internally self-governing dependency of the British Crown and the people are British citizens. It is not formally part of the United Kingdom but is within the British Isles. The Isle of Man has its own currency the Isle of Man pound (Manx) that runs at par with the UK pound. Douglas is the Capital city and the largest town and the entire island is very small at 570 sq. miles. The primary language for business is English. The unemployment rate is very low at 2.6% and the standard of living is high with a life expectancy of 80.76 years and has a very low crime rate. Population 85,421 Labour force 41,790 Unemployment rate 2% Public debt Nil. Communication The Island is known to have a world-class telecommunications infrastructure and offers a full range of services including voice and data communications. Transportation The Isle of Man is very small and has therefore very little transportation infrastructure. It has one airport, a small railway (63 km), roadways (500 km), and a sizable merchant marine (98). Although 321 ships are registered in the Isle of Man, 223 of these are foreign owned. Government The head of the Isle of Man Government is the Lieutenant Governor. The executive head is the Chief Minister. The capital contains both the government offices and the parliament chambers. (Tynwald). The Isle of Man is claimed to be the oldest continuously operating government in the world. It is a dependency of the Crown so is able to set many of its own laws except on issues of defense, foreign affairs and consular services. Isle of Man contributes financially to the UK for these services and protection. Economy The Isle of Man has a very impressive track record regarding its economic success. The Isle of Man has been a remarkable economic story in the past three decades and has benefited from 28 years of continuous economic growth as quoted from an Ernst and Young Report, Isle of Man: Economic Report dated May, 2012. The GDP of Ã £3.2 Billion ($4.9bn US) is very high for a population of only approximately 85,000 peopleÃ Ã . The Isle of Man also enjoys full and free access of Industrial and Agricultural goods movement with the European Union under Protocol 3 of the Treaty of Succession. Isle of Man has been successful in diversifying its economic base away from Agricultural to more diverse selection including financial services, aerospace and information communication technology (ICT). Taxation The Isle of Man sets its own taxes independently of the United Kingdom. The Isle of Man has no separate corporate, estate or inheritance or gift taxes. Income tax is levied at relatively low rates and VAT (Value added tax) is applied in a very similar manner as the UK. Companies are subject to income tax and not a separate corporate tax. Income tax is often zero unless they are engaged in earning profits from Isle of Man land e.g. rental income or property development or from banking then the rate of tax is 10%. Residents of the Island pay up to 20% of their total income to a maximum of 120,000 in tax which has proven attractive for the very wealthy. Capital gains tax is zeroÃ Ã . Since many view the Isle of Man as a tax heaven there are certain risks with this location. For example the Subsidy towards VAT has been removed by the UK to the Island in the amount of Ã £200 million yearly which has a big impact on their ability to keep taxes at zero. Also, there can be a negative connotation from working out of an area that is known to be a tax heaven. Relationships with International Bodies The Isle of Man became recognized as part of the WTO under the United Kingdoms ratification agreement in 1997. Also OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) recognizes the Isle of Man as a member under the United Kingdom. Other bodies such as FATF, FSF and the IMF all have the Isle of Man in good standing with high levels of controls and protections in place. IMF had done a detailed assessment of the Isle of Mans regulatory and anti-money laundering framework in late 2002 and determined that Isle of Man had a high standard of compliance with all assessed areasÃ Ã . Intellectual Property Protection The Isle of Man has a modern system of copyright protection. Computer software is protected in the same manner as prescribed in EC directives. The Isle of Man does not have its own trademark register but the UK system extends to the Island. UK trademarks are protected under Isle of Man civil law. Similarly, UK Patent law extends to the Island and Isle of Man law protects UK registrations. The UK ranks in 2nd place on the Global Intellectual Property Index (GIPI) slightly behind 1st place GermanyÃ Ã . GIBRALTAR Background Strategically significant, Gibraltar was relinquished to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht. This led to the British garrison being declared a colony in 1830. In 1969, Gibraltar was granted autonomy by the UK which led Spain to close their border and sever all ties. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held talks aimed at establishing a temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. This move was however rejected by most Gibraltarians following a 2002 referendum. Tripartite talks have continued since 2004 with the hopes of resolving current disputes and developing cooperation agreements dealing with such things as taxation, communications, customs services, and other contentious issues. In 2009, a dispute over territorial waters gave rise to sporadic non-violent confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols. Of particular importance is the non-colonial constitution which was enacted in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognizing Gibraltars right to regulate its tax regime. The UK is however still responsible for looking after matters of defence, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stabilityÃ Ã . Population 29,034 Labour force 12,690 Unemployment rate 3% Public debt 7.5% of GDP Communication Adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities. Transportation The Isle of Man is very small and has therefore very little transportation infrastructure. It has one airport, few roadways (29 km), and a small merchant marine (13). Although 267 ships are registered in Gibraltar, 254 of these are foreign owned. Government The monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor. Economy Gibraltar adheres to the common law charter and its workforce is highly-educated. The Gibraltar Pound serves as the official unit of currency (in monetary union with the UK pound sterling). No foreign exchange regulations are in effect and complete freedom exists to move funds in and out of Gibraltar as well as the ability to convert funds to any other currency. Taxation The overall corporate tax rate is 10%. Companies pay tax on income that is accrued and derived in Gibraltar. If it can be proven that said income is not accrued and derived in Gibraltar, the income is non-taxable. The company can apply to the Commissioner of Income Tax to have this confirmed in an advance tax ruling (subject to certain conditions and restrictions). Furthermore, there are is Capital Gains Tax in GibraltarÃ Ã . Relationships with International Bodies As a member of the European Union, Gibraltar is subject to almost all European Law. Gibraltar can already take advantage of European Union directives that facilitate cross border business within the European Union in respect of insurance, banking and investment services. Gibraltar licensed or authorised financial institutions can provide services throughout the EU and EEA without having to seek separate licenses or authorisation in the host Member State. This is known as the passporting of financial services. Intellectual Property Protection A companys trading name, product/service brands, associated strap lines, logos and other aspects of get-up or brand image can be protected as registered trademarks. A trade mark must have been previously registered in the UK prior to being registered at Gibraltar Companies House. Patents must also have been previously registered in the UK prior to registration with Gibraltar Companies House. Recommendation To come to a recommendation we compared each jurisdiction using the eight risk factors identified in Table 1. As such, each factor was assigned a value from 1 thru 5, 1 being very low risk and 5 being very high risk. This risk analysis allowed us to identify which jurisdiction provided the least amount of risks based on the selected criteria. Such data provided valuable insights into the relative stability of the economies as a whole, their ability to keep taxes low, the repatriation of funds back to the head office and highlights known risks associated with each country. Table 1: Risk Assessment for jurisdictions Ireland Isle of Man Gibraltar Economy Low Risk (2) in recession following collapse of the real estate bubble high unemployment Low Risk (1) strong GDP; low unemployment Low Risk (1) strong GDP; low unemployment Government Low Risk (2) Low Risk (1) Low Risk (1) Taxation Low Risk (2) Low Risk (1) Low Risk (1) very straight forward Repatriation of profits Low Risk (1) Low Risk (1) Low Risk (1) very easy and straight forward Relationships with International Bodies Low Risk (1) Low Risk (2) some countries are disagreeable with its territorial legal status High risk (4): major territorial ownership and political disagreement with neighbouring Spain Intellectual Property Protection Low Risk (1) Low Risk (1) UK rules Low Risk (2) UK rules + Gibraltar registration Technology Infrastructure Low Risk (1) Low Risk (2) adequate but not excellent Low Risk (2) adequate but not excellent Costs of setting up merchant account with internet low cost credit card transactions processing Low Risk (2) competitive internet based rate but more expensive than offshores Low Risk (1) Competitive internet based rate Low Risk (1) Competitive internet based rate Total Risks Summary 12 10 (Lowest) 13 Best Choice We also looked at other factors including GDP, unemployment rates, and various tax rates (corporate tax rate, capital gains tax, and stamp tax) to determine overall suitability (see table 2). Once again, the Isle of Man stands out due to its 0% tax rate and sound economic indicators. Table 2: Summary Stats We also looked at some financial considerations in dollar amounts. As such, Table 3 provides some financial data on the impact of taxation if our company made a profit of $5M or $55M and we show the after Corporate tax amount resulting from such calculations. We also added a column to show the impact on profits if we remained in Canada and did not use a subsidiary. As you can see the Isle of Man has a distinct advantage over all other competitors and with no Repatriation costs it has a substantial benefit over the Canadian market place as well. Table 3 Impact of Taxation on Corporate profits Corporate Profits (approximate) Ireland Isle of Man Gibraltar Canada Profits $5,000,000.00 $4,375,000.00 $5,000,000.00 $4,500,000.00 $3,900,000.00 Profits $55,000,000.00 $48,125,000.00 $55,000,000.00 $49,500,000.00 $42,900,000.00 CONCLUSION Opening a foreign-based subsidiary to process sales outside of North America can be very beneficial given that Quattroporte is looking at international trading. By establishing such a subsidiary, we will be able to circumvent withholding taxes on outgoing payments of dividends, interest and royalties. The routing of dividends through jurisdictions with favourable double tax treaties can help our organization avoid many such tax retentions. The key issues we looked at were: Zero to very low withholding taxes on dividends. No taxes in the jurisdiction of the holding company. Zero to very low withholding taxes on dividends (paid from holding company to shareholder). Although not a crucial immediate issue we should also consider whether our company would be subject to any tax on a future disposal of the subsidiary, or whether there would be any tax on a disposal of the holding company shares. It will also need to be considered whether Canada has any special provisions that apply to dividends from tax haven jurisdictions given our intent to locate to such countries. When identifying the most suitable location for opening a foreign-based subsidiary, we have found that the Isle of Man with its array of tax benefits, stable government, strong economy, and myriad of corporate and financial services will ultimately save our organization money, increase profits and streamline the operating costs of our business.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Alan Bennett's Monologues as Dramas These plays are written for TV rather than theatre and are experimental for different styles of acting with more emphasis being placed on the single actors face. This is in order to show subtle changes in expressions hopefully giving the viewer a more clear insight into the characters feelings. This is more appropriate for "A Cream CrackerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦" as it is a moving story, which is portrayed, even more so in the subtle movement of Doris's face "Cracked the photo. We're cracked, Wilfred." Doris has cracked her wedding photo to her late husband Wilfred, the sadness being emphasized not only through her voice but through facial expressions is far more effective. It also works well in "Her Big Chance" as the falseness of Leslie comes across through her trying to be professional and the false gestures and expressions she puts into doing this. "Are you on the cans because id like some direction on this point." Here Leslie is an extra on the daytime soap Crossroads and is asking for direction on the simplest of parts, in order to suggest that she is professional so that she might get a call back. While putting this across to the viewers she uses gestures suggesting that Rex is not as professional and devoted to the job as her. In these plays there is only a single actor/actress in these cases "Leslie" and "Doris" with all the other characters seen through the eyes of the main character. This does not give us the chance to have our own opinions about the other characters but gives us the views and opinions of the main character. This is useful on both plays as although it tells us less about sub characters it tells us a lot more about "Leslie" and "Doris" and their feelings about the people around them. "I've a feeling Scott may be gay" Leslie suggests this as he is the only man, to date, involved in the film who has not attempted to take advantage of her naivety. This tells us of how she is naive and finds herself extremely attractive, as the first man who doesn't make a sexual advance towards her is labeled gay. "Zulema doesn't dust. She half-dusts." From this we learn that Doris takes pride in her home and likes it spick and span, also that she thinks she is able to live alone and does not need home help. It also tells us a bit about Zulema, that she is not fully devoted to her work as the dusting is only half done. Both actresses portray the characters very well and make them both
Monday, August 19, 2019
The year 1968 can be recognized by the mass-youth appeal in late twentieth-century political and intellectual culture. It's most frequently remembered for the assassination of Martin Luther King, the May uprisings by students and workers in France, the assassination of Robert Kennedy, the riots in Chicago during the Democratic National Convention, the massacre of government protesters in Mexico City during the weeks leading up to the Olympics, and the election of Richard Nixon--to name just a few of the more infamous events. It was a year marked by the beginning of America's decline as the single dominant economic power to emerge at the end of World War II. Many social changes that were addressed in the 1960s are still the issues being confronted today. The Ã¢â¬Ë60s was a decade of social and political upheaval. In spite of all the turmoil, there were some positive results: the civil rights revolution, John F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s bold vision of a new frontier, and the breathtaking ad vances in space helped bring about progress and prosperity. However, much was negative: student and anti-war protest movements, political assassinations, and ghetto riots excited American people and resulted in lack of respect for authority and the law. Edward Sanders' book-long poem entitled 1968: A History in Verse depicts all areas of the year 1968 from January 1st through the end of December. Sanders avoids depicting the year 1968 as either the last great hope for historical redemption in America or as the beginning of a reactionary turn in the culture. The book recaps the year in which he played an important socio-cultural activist, role model, musician, and poet. The poem continues to cite specific details centered mostly on where his rock band, the fugs, traveled to and whom and what he encountered along the way. Ã¢â¬Å"To me this was the last mote of proof in 1968 that the Nation was lostÃ¢â¬ (189). After witnessing the riots in Chicago, the "Nation" SanderÃ¢â¬â¢s referred to is an imaginary society in which community responsibility is shared equally between both government and citizens, and economic resources are distributed more rightfully among its members, when it is actually an existing set of political formations run by the government. The book continues to address 1968 as a rebellious era of the youth of America. The Yippies, or members of the anti-political association The Youth International Party, were active across America voicing their opinion and opposing the war.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Police Use of Excessive Force Against Asian Americans On July 13, 2003, the death of Cau Thi Bich Tran, a 25 year-old Vietnamese mother of two, stirred up the hearts of many in the Asian American community. According to the police, officer Chad Marshall and his partner responded to a 911 call from Ms. TranÃ¢â¬â¢s neighborhood claiming that an unsupervised toddler was roaming the streets. The policemen arrived at TranÃ¢â¬â¢s home and were let in by Dang Bui, the father of the two boys, who did not know what was going on at that time. Chad Marshall entered the house and in less than a minute, had shot Ms. Tran through the chest. The police claim that Ms. Tran yelled at Marshall to get out and grabbed an Asian vegetable peeler to throw at him. Marshall then ordered the petite woman to drop the Ã¢â¬Å"weaponÃ¢â¬ several times. Dang Bui argues that this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case. He witnessed no order from the policeman to drop the weapon nor did the officer identify himself. Dang Bui also noted that Ms. Tran spoke very limited English and would not have been able to order the police to leave her house. Cau Thi Bich TranÃ¢â¬â¢s killing has left many in the Asian American community not only outraged but also cynical about law enforcement. The incredibly short amount of time the policemen took before killing Ms. Tran leads us to believe that the police were careless and did not take the time to investigate the situation, but rather jumped to conclusions, resulting in the death of an innocent person. Chad Marshall saw the six-inch peeler Ms. Tran was holding as a threat and instantly killed her to protect himself. Instead of retreating, using voice commands, tasers, baton or pepper spray, Officer Marshall chose to escalate the situation by applying deadly force. After the killing, the court did not indict Officer Marshall. The question arises as to why he did not exercise other options rather than shooting her dead on the spot, and why we can let such a person casually wander the streets to protect others. This case shows that the San Jose police lack language skills and cult ural sensitivity, and they are allowed to kill with impunity, taking no responsibility for their own actions. Police Use of Excessive Force Against Asian Americans :: Argument Argumentative Persuasive Police Use of Excessive Force Against Asian Americans On July 13, 2003, the death of Cau Thi Bich Tran, a 25 year-old Vietnamese mother of two, stirred up the hearts of many in the Asian American community. According to the police, officer Chad Marshall and his partner responded to a 911 call from Ms. TranÃ¢â¬â¢s neighborhood claiming that an unsupervised toddler was roaming the streets. The policemen arrived at TranÃ¢â¬â¢s home and were let in by Dang Bui, the father of the two boys, who did not know what was going on at that time. Chad Marshall entered the house and in less than a minute, had shot Ms. Tran through the chest. The police claim that Ms. Tran yelled at Marshall to get out and grabbed an Asian vegetable peeler to throw at him. Marshall then ordered the petite woman to drop the Ã¢â¬Å"weaponÃ¢â¬ several times. Dang Bui argues that this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case. He witnessed no order from the policeman to drop the weapon nor did the officer identify himself. Dang Bui also noted that Ms. Tran spoke very limited English and would not have been able to order the police to leave her house. Cau Thi Bich TranÃ¢â¬â¢s killing has left many in the Asian American community not only outraged but also cynical about law enforcement. The incredibly short amount of time the policemen took before killing Ms. Tran leads us to believe that the police were careless and did not take the time to investigate the situation, but rather jumped to conclusions, resulting in the death of an innocent person. Chad Marshall saw the six-inch peeler Ms. Tran was holding as a threat and instantly killed her to protect himself. Instead of retreating, using voice commands, tasers, baton or pepper spray, Officer Marshall chose to escalate the situation by applying deadly force. After the killing, the court did not indict Officer Marshall. The question arises as to why he did not exercise other options rather than shooting her dead on the spot, and why we can let such a person casually wander the streets to protect others. This case shows that the San Jose police lack language skills and cult ural sensitivity, and they are allowed to kill with impunity, taking no responsibility for their own actions.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Anterior and posterior arch breadths in the eyetooth and molar parts from the most labial facet of buccal surfaces the eyetooths and the grinders were measured with the aid of digital caliper on the survey theoretical accounts and compared statistically to find whether the dental arches were narrower after extraction intervention.Consequences:At the start of the intervention maxillary and inframaxillary intercanine breadths both groups did non differ statistically.At the terminal of Treatment in both the groups anterior and posterior arch breadths were same except for the intercanine dimension which was 0.82 millimeter larger ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) in the extraction group.Decision:The extraction intervention does non ensue in narrower alveolar consonant arches than non extraction intervention in intercanine and intermolar part. Clinical significance: The narrow dental arches are non the expected effects of extraction intervention so, esthetically compromising consequence of narrow dental arches on smiling is non a systematic out semen of extraction intervention. Cardinal words: Arch breadth Changes, Intercanine and Intermolar breadth, extraction and Non Extraction Treatment.Introduction:The extraction versus non extraction argument is about every bit old as the coming of orthodontias pattern and boulder clay today the quandary exists. Angle1 believed that all 32 dentitions could be accommodated in the jaws, in an ideal occlusion with the first grinder in Class I occlusion, extractions was bete noire to his ideals, as he believed bone would organize around the dentitions in their place harmonizing to Wolff Ã¢â¬Ës law2. However this was criticised by Case who stated that extractions were necessary in order to alleviate crowding and assistance stableness of treatment.3 However depending upon clinical scrutiny, radiographic and accurate diagnosing the extraction determination should be taken. Assorted transverse and perpendicular malrelationships such as crowding, bulge of dentitions are observed in Class I malocclusion which can be handled by extraction or non-extraction intervention depending upon infinite disagreement.However the long term stableness in both interventions is surrounded by a contention. It is good documented fact that addition in dental arch length and breadth during orthodontic intervention tend to return toward their pre-treatment values after retention.4,5,6,7 One of the unfavorable judgment of extraction intervention is that it consequences in narrower arches as compared to non-extraction treatment,8.The popularity of non-extraction intervention are condylar supplanting, narrowed smilings accompanied by dark corners, dished in profiles with extractions and suboptimal inframaxillary growth.9-16 Some surveies claim that dimension alterations occur in both extraction and non-extraction treatments,17 18 It is believed that the pre-treatment values of intercanine and intermolar breadths present a place of muscular balance so it is suggested that the maintaince of these values provide postretention stableness 19,20.Strang21 and Shapiro concluded that inframaxillary intercanine and intermolar breadth dimensions have a strong inclination to get worse. In the past many surveies have been carried out to analyze the effects of extraction and non-extraction intervention but the decisions vary a batch which could be because of different intervention techniques, malocclusion types and sample size examined during these surveies. So the purpose of present survey was to compare dental condescending breadths alterations in Angle Class I malocclusion after extraction of first premolar and non-extraction with a homogeneous survey group in footings of malocclusion and intervention mechanics.The arch breadths were measured in inframaxillary arches because condescending breadths are normally established by inframaxillary arch.Materials and methodsIn this retrospective survey orthodontic survey theoretical accounts of 30 patients who had first premolar extractions and 30 patients treated without extractions were selected.in the extraction group there were 19 misss and 11 male childs with average age 14.2+-2.9 old ages and in the non-extraction group had 18 male childs and 12 misss with average age 14.3+_2.12 old ages All the patients were treated with preadjusted contraption by assorted teachers in a dental institute. While choice the undermentioned standards were applied All patients had skeletal Class I malocclusion All patients had full compliment of teeth upto 2nd grinders without any losing dentition, excess dentition, or congenitally losing dentitions. None of the patients had a adjunctive contraptions such as quad spiral, any functional contraptions, rapid palatine expander during intervention In the extraction group all patients had first premolar extraction as a portion of orthodontic intervention. With an digital calliper, the breadths of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxillary and inframaxillary alveolar consonant arches were measured in the eyetooth and the molar parts from the most labial facet of the buccal surfaces of those dentitions. The calliper was placed at the best estimation of a right angle to the palatine sutura in the maxillary arch and to a line bisecting the incisor section in the inframaxillary arch. The recorded breadths between the grinders were the widest distances between the first or 2nd grinders. The widest portion of the posterior portion of the arch invariably was in the 2nd molar part. Each distance was measured 3 times, and the norm of the 3 values was used as the concluding step. The duplicability of the measurings was evaluated by analysing the differences between 10 dual measurings of intercanine and intermolar distances, indiscriminately selected and taken at different times. The mistake of measuring was assessed by Dahlberg Ã¢â¬Ës expression: Sx = where D is the difference between extra measurings, and N is the figure of dual findings. The mistakes were 0.21 millimeter for inframaxillary intercanine breadth, 0.60 millimeter for inframaxillary intermolar grinder breadth, 0.36 millimeter for maxillary intercanine breadth, and 0.21 millimeter for maxillary intermolar breadth. Means and standard divergences were calculated, and a 2-tailed T trial was used to find statistically important differences with P & lt ; 0.05.ConsequencesThe inframaxillary intercanine and intermolar breadths did non demo statistical differences at the start of the intervention in both the groups. ( Table 1 ) At the terminal of intervention the condescending breadths of both the groups were besides statistically similar except in inframaxillary eyetooth part. ( Table 2 ) The mean inframaxillary intercanine dimension was 0.82 millimeter larger in extraction sample than non-extraction sample. During intervention the average inframaxillary eyetooth width addition was 1.28mm in extraction group and the 0.66mm addition in non-extraction group which was non statistically important. ( Table 3 & A ; 4 ) The inframaxillary intermolar breadths for both extraction and non-extraction group were non changed. Table 1. Pretretment inframaxillary intercanine and intermolar arch breadths: agencies and SD ( millimeter ) Extraction ( n=30 ) Non-extraction ( n=30 ) Significance Intercanine 30.47 AÃ ± 2.09 30.27 AÃ ± 1.82 Nitrogen Intermolar 59.25 AÃ ±2.92 59.05AÃ ± 1.67 Nitrogen NS-Not Significant Table 2. station intervention upper jaw and inframaxillary arch intercanine and intermolar breadths: agencies and SD ( millimeter ) Extraction ( n=30 ) Non-extraction ( n=30 ) Difference Significance Mx Intercanine 39.12 AÃ ± 1.98 39.84 AÃ ± 1.81 0.72 Nitrogen Md Intercanine 31.75 AÃ ± 1.84 30.93 AÃ ± 1.92 0.82 0.01 Mx Intemolar 61.01 AÃ ± 1.98 60.98 AÃ ± 2.09 0.03 Nitrogen Md Intemolar 59.81 AÃ ± 1.25 59.01 AÃ ±1.98 0.80 Nitrogen Mx- Maxillary ; Md- Mandibular ; NS-Not Significant Table 3.Mandibular intercanine and intermolar breadth alterations: agencies and SD ( millimeter ) Extraction ( n=30 ) Pre-Treatment Post- Treatment Difference Md Intercanine 30.47AÃ ± 2.09 31.75 AÃ ± 1.84 1.28 Mendelevium Intermolar 59.25 AÃ ± 2.92 59.81 AÃ ± 1.25 0.56 Md-Mandibular ; NS-Not Significant. Table 4.Mandibular intercanine and intermolar breadth alterations: agencies and SD ( millimeter ) Non-extraction ( n=30 ) Pre-treatment Post- Treatment Difference Md Intercanine 30.27 AÃ ± 1.82 30.93 AÃ ± 1.92 0.66 Mendelevium Intermolar 59.05 AÃ ± 1.67 59.01 AÃ ± 1.98 0.04 Md-Mandibular ; NS-Not Significant.DiscussionThe two grounds for which the extraction interventions are criticised are that they result in narrow alveolar consonant arches which are unesthetic because of big black trigons in buccal corridors and it is stated that the intercanine and intermolar breadths tend to diminish during station keeping period 5,19-22 Harmonizing to findings of the present survey the arch breadth in both eyetooth and molar part in the inframaxillary arches did non demo any statistical important results.in fact the arches in extraction group were about 0.82mm wider than non-extraction group. Although these findings might non fulfill some writers who support non-extraction interventions. The consequences of this survey can be compared with surveies on station intervention long term stableness in which inframaxillary incisor stableness was acceptable. The inframaxillary intercanine breadth increased 1.07mm in an extraction sample23 in contrast in non-extraction topics where the addition in inframaxillary intercanine dimension was less than 1mm in Class I 24,25 and Class II patients.. In boundary line instances the long term addition in intrecanine breadth was 1mm in extraction interventions and 0.5mm in non-extraction 26 treatments.Luppanapornlarp and Johnston found that inframaxillary intercanine breadth of extraction topics was greater at all phases of intervention in extraction instances than in non-extraction instances which indicate that extraction of 4 first bicuspids does non bespeak narrowing of arches.27BeGole et Al 28 found 1.58mm addition in extraction sample as compared to 0.95mm in non-extraction sample.Udhe et al 29 found a larger addition in extraction group than in non-extraction group. Gianelly 5 studied inter arch alterations of extraction and non-extraction groups and found that the alterations in maxillary and inframaxillary arch breadths indicated that extraction intervention does non ensue in narrower arches than non-extraction groups. This determination is in conformity with the present study.On the footing of constructs documented in the literature13,30,31 1 might anticipate narrower arches after extraction.However Kim and Gianelly suggested that the breadths of the both the arches were 1-2mm larger when compared with the condescending breadths of non-extraction group at a standardized arch depth.The intermolar breadths of both the groups were same after intervention this determination supports the position of Johnson and smith32. Who stated that arch breadth at any peculiar location is maintained or somewhat increased after extraction. Weinberg and sadowsky33 found important addition in inframaxillary intercanine and intermolar breadth in class1 malocclusion treated non-extraction and stated that the enlargement of buccal sections in the inframaxillary arches helped in declaration of Class I herding. However 16 out of 30 patients had some sort of palatal expander which might hold contributed to inframaxillary enlargement In the present survey no interventions were given for enlargement. To some research workers maxillary arch breadth is deciding of smile esthetics,34, the maxillary arch breadths in extraction and non-extraction groups were same so it can be expected that the intervention effects in maxillary arches will be the same, and there will be no difference in esthetic tonss in both the groups.In fact the intercanine breadths in extraction groups were wider than non-extraction group. However the hereafter surveies in the maxillary arches in assorted malocclusion categorizations with assorted intervention mechanics will be productive. It is stated that enlargement more than 1-1.5mm in intercanine enlargement is unstable so appliances designed to increase arch width more than this were non used in the present survey. On the footing of findings of the present survey it can be said that extraction instances do non ensue in narrow dental arches than non-extraction instances and thereby do non hold compromising consequence on smiling esthetics and stableness of orthodontic intervention. However future surveies with assorted malocclusion groups, intervention mechanics, larger sample size and long term alterations in arch dimensions will be utile.DecisionsThe present survey findings indicate that the premolar extractions to alleviate crowding does non ensue in narrowing of dental arches in extraction interventions when compared to non-extraction interventions. A proper intervention program and intervention mechanics in accurately diagnosed instance can ensue in intervention success regardless of extraction or non-extraction intervention.Clinical significance:The narrow dental arches are non the expected effects of extraction intervention so, esthetically compromising consequence of narrow dental arches on smiling is non a systematic out semen of extraction intervention.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Eating Healthy With A Busy Schedule So weÃ¢â¬â¢re all busy right? Running to and from places. To Starbucks, to theÃ office, to visit an elderly grandparent, to the gym, to an extra-curricular activity, a meeting. Running ! running ! running. And yet, I always roll my eyes at those skinny girls who say, Ã¢â¬Å"I just donÃ¢â¬â¢t have time to eat! Ã¢â¬ Yah, WHATEVER! Rome could be burning, and there I am, chompingÃ¢â¬â¢ away. In fact, I can count on one hand the number of meals IÃ¢â¬â¢ve missed in myÃ ENTIREÃ lifetime. If you ask my husband, heÃ¢â¬â¢ll attest to it! No joke. I NEVER miss a meal. So, how do you do it?With all the running and juggling, how do you make time for good healthy meals, and avoid skipping? Believe me, IÃ¢â¬â¢m just as busy as the next person, but I alwaysÃ make time to eat. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not saying I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t eaten a salad in my car on my way to a meeting, but IÃ make food a priority, as funny as it sounds. For women juggling it all, food is in fact paramount to your success. And good food, may I add. Eating healthy with a busy lifestyle. You on the fence with how to incorporateÃ this into your hecticÃ life? A few tips that help me stay nutritious and energetic: * I ALWAYS keep snacks on me.I have a nice mixed bag of nuts, and organic yogurt covered raisins in my glove compartment and/or purse at all times. It always comes in handy. This way, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t binge on my next meal. Healthy snacking helps cutÃ the binging for sure, becauseÃ eating aÃ little food every few hours stablilizesÃ your blood sugar levels so your brain is much calmer when it sees your next meal! * I have my EricaÃ¢â¬â¢s To Do List notepad in the kitchen, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s visible atÃ all times. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s my running list of whateverÃ weÃ¢â¬â¢re low on. The minute IÃ¢â¬â¢m almost done a ketchup, for example, (which is like every week), it goes on that list.Keep your healthy stuff on this list the minute youÃ¢â¬â¢re lo w. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re much more likely to always buy the good stuff if itÃ¢â¬â¢s staring at you on a piece of paper at the grocery store. * I try and stop eating before IÃ¢â¬â¢m stuffed and gorged. My friends know, I never leave any food on my plate, EVER. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been ingrained in my brain since IÃ¢â¬â¢m little. My father grew up lacking many resources, so he always cleans his plate, as do it. But the right way to go, is to really stop before that full-feeling sets in. Portion control baby! * The same rule for my kids, applies to me. I aim for a protein, a carb, a vegetable and a fruit with every lunch and dinner.This has worked well for me. * If you anticipate a busy day, and foresee a McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s drive-through day (okay, itÃ¢â¬â¢s yummy), PLAN AHEAD. Make your lunch the night before. I was truly in the best shape of my life when I was working. Now thatÃ IÃ¢â¬â¢m at home,Ã I snack all day, or eat whatever, whenever. When I packed myself a lunch for the office, i t was a nice turkey sandwich, with hummus and carrots, celery and fennel (yes I LOVE fennel, and am theÃ only one in my family), a V8, and some pineapple. Nuts or cheese and crackers for snacks. There was portion control, and it was all energizing food.I felt and looked great. * When I look to buy new foods that I have never purchased before, I always read the ingredients. Remember, THE LONGER THE LIST, THE WORSE IT IS FOR YOU. The healthiest foods have simply one; strawberries, broccoli, orangesÃ¢â¬ ¦ catch my drift? The long lists contain MSG, sugar, salt, and more crap. * My advice, take it or leave it: if you can go organic on one or two things in your life, go for organic dairy (milk, cheese, yogurt), and meats and/or poultries. I do believe in buyingÃ organic for these two, even though someÃ studies sayÃ there is no difference.I amÃ a suckerÃ however,Ã for pretty muchÃ allÃ organic lines of kids snacks (even though here, I highly doubt any realÃ difference exists). But for the other two I mentioned, I take them very seriously. I truly believe all the hormonal injections in our dairy and meats is whatÃ¢â¬â¢s giving us cancer, and our kids early puberty onset. There are also pesticides in fruits and vegetables, so if budget allows, I would suggest buying the organic stuff where you eat the skin (ex; apples, strawberries, broccoli), and not necessarily theÃ fruits and veggies like bananas and oranges, where you peel off the skin. * And finally, WATER.My water bottle comes with me many places. I fill it up along the way. Water is important. We know this already. Unfortunately, I was born with my dadÃ¢â¬â¢s skin, and not my momÃ¢â¬â¢s, (which is creamy, milky and always blemish free), so I do my best to hydrate as much as possible to help with my skin. I really notice a difference in how IÃ look and feelÃ when I drink a ton of water. Yo, busy women! Can any of you share some of your tips that keep you lean, healthy and energiz ed? And thank you ladies for all your emails of concern. The grandfather is stable, and alive. So, itÃ¢â¬â¢s wedding weekend as usual for now. Until next timeÃ¢â¬ ¦ *